What is Gingivitis?
Plaque occurs naturally and it is adhesive film containing bacteria. Gingivitis is a common and mild
form type of gum disease that occurs when plaque accumulates on the teeth and brings out infection
of the surrounding gum tissue. Toxins produced by plaque irritate the gums. This can cause the gums
to become inflamed, red or swollen, or bleed. This harmful plaque bacteria can even cause problems
beyond gingivitis, such as weakened enamel. The most important reason of this disease is not giving
enough attention to oral hygiene. It is essential that you brush your teeth twice a day, use dental
floss and make dental check ups regularly. Thus, gingivitis may be prevented or reversed. Since oral
health starts in gums, even with regular brushing, be sure to pay attention to your gum line. So it is
very important to take gingivitis into consideration seriously and visit your dentist, because gingivitis
can cause priodontitis which is a more critical disease and at the end it can cause tooth loss.
What Causes Gingivitis?
Other factors causing gingivitis other than plaque can increase the risk. If some of the following
factors apply to you, pay particular attention to your teeth and gum line and consult your dentist.
Smoking is one of the most important risk factors associated with gum disease and may reduce the
chance of successful treatment. Research shows that smokers are up to 7 times more at risk than
The plaque which is not completely removed. Even if the plaque is removed from your teeth,
the plaque around the gum line may have stayed.
Poor oral hygiene, such as not regular brushing or flossing, is one of the causes of gingivitis that
can be easily prevented.
Hormonal changes, including puberty, pregnancy, menopause and monthly menstruation,
increase your gum sensitivity and cause inflammation. During such physiological changes, you need
to pay more attention to your teeth and oral hygiene.
Stress is also can cause gingivitis. With continuous stress, you immune system can be weakened
and your ability of fighting with infection, including gum disease, can be adversely affected.
Malnutrition makes the body deprived of important nutrients and makes it difficult for the body to
Medications, like many other causes, can affect your oral health. If you are taking prescription or
over-the-counter medications, tell your dentist.
Chronic illnesses such as HIV, diabetes, and cancer disrupt the body's ability to fight infection, so
if you have any chronic disease, always share it with your dentist.
Symptoms of Gingivitis
In some cases, gingivitis does not cause pain, and most people do not know that you are struggling
with it. So even knowing what you are looking for is sometimes not enough, it is also important that
you visit your dentist regularly.
Some gingivitis symptoms you should pay attention to:
Red and fluffy gums.
Bleeding gums, especially when brushing teeth and flossing
Permanent gum pains
Toothache or sensitivity: When the gums begin to be pulled over your teeth, your teeth are
more exposed to external influences, so they are more susceptible to heat and cold.
Loose teeth or changes in the way your teeth fit when you bite.
Bad breath that does not pass. The plaque contains millions of bacteria that produce bad
Types of Gingivitis
There are two main categories of gingival diseases:
Dental plaque-induced gingival disease: This can be caused by plaque, systemic factors, medications,
Non-plaque induced gingival lesions: This can be caused by a specific bacterium, virus, or fungus. It
might also be caused by genetic factors, systemic conditions (including allergic reactions and certain
illnesses), wounds, or reactions to foreign bodies. Trusted Source, such as dentures. Sometimes,
there is no specific cause.
There are two main types of this gum disease:
1- Dental plaque-induced gum disease: This may be due to plaque, systemic factors,
medications, or malnutrition.
2- Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions: A specific bacterium, virus or fun gus can cause
this type of gingivitis. In addition, genetic factors, conditions caused by your body system
(like allergic reactions or some type of diseases), wounds may lead to gingivitis. There are
also some cases where there is no reason.